convict leasing

The Stockade Stood Burning: rebellion and the convict lease in Tennessee’s coalfields, 1891-1895

Something happened in Tennessee, something almost unimaginable to the mine owners and politicians of that
state. When the companies tried to intimidate their workers by bringing in convict labor to take over their jobs, the workers responded by storming the stockades, freeing the prisoners, and loading them onto freight trains bound for Nashville and Knoxville and places far away...The Tennessee convict war was one of the largest insurrections in American working-class history. And yet, unfolding at exactly the same time as the more publicized labor wars in Homestead, Pennsylvania, and Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, it was largely ignored.

1891: Miners against prison labour

American miner in 1890

Howard Zinn's account of American miners' struggles against the use of slave prison labour.