Antonio Gramsci

The Third Generation: the Young Socialists in Italy, 1907-1915 - Canadian Journal of History, 1996

The youthful Bordiga

This is a wonderfully informative text about the political milieu that produced Bordiga, Gramsci and, of course, Mussolini... It describes the increasing radicalisation of the youth wing of the italian Socialists from 1910 onwards, leading to increasing adoption of anti-militarist, anti-nationalist and antiparliamentary policies by its most active members.

It's available online elsewhere in various various fragmented and badly proofread versions, so here's a cleaned up version.

An Address to the Anarchists - Antonio Gramsci, 1920

Writing on the eve of the April 1920 Turin general strike led by factory councils, Gramsci attacks the Italian anarchists in a rather patronising way, claiming that anarchists expressed only empty abstraction and ideal 'absolute truths' and that in the course of a revolution anarchist workers would overcome their 'illusions' to realise the necessity for the existence of the mythical 'proletarian state'.

Antonio Gramsci and the Bolshevization of the PCI - Thomas R Bates

Antonio Gramsci and the Bolshevization of the PCI.

Thomas R. Bates on Gramsci's role in the turn of the Italian Communist Party towards Bolshevik methods. In PDF format.