Notes and References

Notes and References

1. Anti-Parliamentarianism and Communism

2. the Russian Revolution

3. the Labour Party

4. Trade Unions and Industrial Organisation

5. The Late Twenties and Early Thirties

6. The Split in the APCF and Formation of the USM

7. The Civil War in Spain

8. The Second World War

9. A Balance Sheet

Back to Index

1 'Anti-Parliamentarism' and 'Communism'

1. Workers' Dreadnought, 15 September 1917.

2. Minutes of WSF General Meeting 19 March 1917, Pankhurst Papers.

3. Spur, May 1917.

4. Woman's Dreadnought, 27 January 1917.

5. Workers' Dreadnought, 26 January 1918.

6. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 26 July 1918, Pankhurst Papers.

7. Workers' Dreadnought, 16 February 1918.

8. Ibid., 1 June 1918.

9. Ibid., 7 December 1918.

10. Minutes of WSF General Meeting 15 November 1918, Pankhurst Papers.

11. Workers' Dreadnought, 2 November 1918.

12. Ibid., 30 November and 7 December 1918.

13. Marx, 1977, p. 66.

14. Spur, June 1918.

15. Caldwell, 1983, p. 17.

16. Red Commune, February 1921.

17. Workers' Dreadnought, 22 March 1919.

18. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 28 March 1919, Pankhurst Papers; Workers' Dreadnought, 14 June 1919.

19. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 12 June 1919, Pankhurst Papers.

20. Spur, May 1919.

21. Letter dated 16 July 1919 in Communist International, September 1919.

22. Letter dated 28 August 1919 in Lenin, 1969, pp. 243-5.

23. Commune, June 1924.

24. Worker, 13 December 1919.

25. Spur, January-February 1920

26. Jones, 1982, pp. 205-7.

27. Spur, October 1919.

28. Ibid., January 1921.

29. Ibid., May 1920.

30. Ibid., July 1920.

31. Ibid., October 1920.

32. Ibid., August 1920.

33. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 April 1920.

34. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meetings 20 February and 3 March 1920, Pankhurst Papers.

35. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 10 June 1920, Pankhurst Papers; Workers' Dreadnought, 12 June 1920.

36. Workers' Dreadnought, 26 June and 3 July 1920.

37. Forward, 26 June - 2 October 1920.

38. Spur, March 1919; Communist, May 1919; Communist League leaflet, file 48, Pankhurst Papers.

39. Spur, May 1920.

40. Ibid., August 1920.

41. Ibid., August 1920 and April 1921.

42. Lenin, 1975, pp. 85 and 87 (emphases in original).

43. Letter dated 8 July 1920 in Lenin, 1969, p. 261.

44. Workers' Dreadnought, 2 October 1920.

45. Ibid., 16 October 1920.

46. Pankhurst, 1921, pp. 45-6.

47. Workers' Dreadnought, 11 December 1920.

48. Ibid., 18 and 25 December 1920, 1 and 8 January 1921.

49. Ibid., 1 January 1921.

50. Ibid., 15 January 1921.

51. Red Commune, February 1921.

52. Workers' Dreadnought, 30 July and 17 September 1921.

53. McGovern, 1960, pp. 95-6.

54. Workers' Dreadnought, 8 October 1921.

55. Ibid., 11 February 1922.

56. Ibid., 23 September 1922.

57. Ibid., 28 October 1922.

58. Caldwell, 1978, p. 231.

59. Aldred, 1922.

60. Workers' Dreadnought, 19 February 1921.

61. Ibid., 25 November 1922.

62. Commune, November 1923.

63. Milton, 1973, pp. 298-300.

64. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 November 1923.

65. Leaflet reprinted in Commune, November 1923 (emphases in original).

66. Workers' Dreadnought, 17 November 1923.

67. Commune, December 1923-January 1924. 68 Ibid., October 1924.

69. 'Platform of the Communist International adopted by the First Comintern Congress' in Degras, 1956, p. 18 (emphasis in original).

70. 'Theses on Bourgeois Democracy and Proletarian Dictatorship adopted by the First Comintern Congress' in ibid., p. 13.

71. Spur, July 1917.

72. Workers' Dreadnought, 3 December 1921.

73. ECCI circular letter on Parliament and Soviets in Degras, 1956, p. 67.

74. Theses on Communist Parties and Parliament adopted by the Second Comintern Congress' in ibid., pp. 153-4.

75. Ibid.

76. Lenin, 1975, p. 104.

77. Ibid., p. 52 (emphases in original).

78. Workers' Dreadnought, 27 September 1919.

79. Letter dated 16 July 1919 in Communist International, September 1919.

80. Workers' Dreadnought, 24 March 1923.

81. Aldred, 1923, p. 6

82. Aldred, 1922.

83. Spur, May 1918.

84. Ibid., May 1920.

85 Red Commune, February 1921.

86 Workers' Dreadnought, 30 July 1921.

87. Ibid.. 24 September 1921.

88. Red Commune, February 1921.

89. Workers' Dreadnought, 6 October 1923.

90. Gallacher, 1966, pp. 152-4.

91. Workers' Dreadnought, 2 December 1922.

92. Spur. June 1918.

93. Ibid., May 1918 (emphases in original).

94. Worker, 22 July 1922 (emphasis in original).

95. Workers' Dreadnought. 24 March 1923.

96. Ibid., 24 September 1921.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid.. 27 August 1921.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid., 1 December 1923.

101. Spur, March-April 1918.

102. Workers' Dreadnought, 31 July 1920.

103. Ibid., 24 March 1923.

104. Pannekoek. 'World Revolution and Communist Tactics" in Smart, 1978. pp. 110-11 (emphasis in original).

105. Workers' Dreadnought, 21 April 1923.

106. Ibid., 15 April 1922.

107. Ibid., 24 March 1923.

108. Commune, December 1924.

109. Spur, March 1919.

110. Workers' Dreadnought, 3 July 1920.

111. Ibid., 1 June 1918.

112. Red Commune, February 1921.

113. Aldred, 1922.

114. Workers' Dreadnought, 4 February 1922.

115. Ibid., 2 November 1918.

116. Ibid., 16 February 1918.

117. Ibid., 27 April 1918.

118. Spur. June 1918.

119. Workers' Dreadnought. 26 November 1921.

120. Ibid., 13 August 1921.

121. Ibid., 10 December 1921.

122. Ibid., 23 September 1922.

123. Ibid., 21 February 1920.

124. Ibid.. 20 May 1922.

125. Ibid.

126. Ibid., 26 November 1921.

127. Spur, August 1917.

128. Workers' Dreadnought, 15 April 1922.

129. Spur, September 1917.

130. Aldred, 1919a, pp. 4-5.

131. Woman's Dreadnought, 3 March 1917.

132. Spur, August 1917.

133. Ibid., May 1918.

134. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 December 1921.

135. Ibid., 1 April 1922.

136. Ibid., 18 March 1922.

137. Spur, August 1917.

138. Workers' Dreadnought, 26 November 1921.

139. Spur. May 1918.

140. Solidarity, June-July 1939.

141. Woman's Dreadnought, 3 March 1917.

2 The Russian Revolution

1. Spur, May 1917.

2. Ibid., July 1917 (emphasis in original).

3. Ibid., October 1917.

4. Woman's Dreadnought, 9 June 1917

5. Ibid., 24 March 1917.

6. Ibid., 30 June 1917.

7. Workers' Dreadnought, 11 August 1917.

8. Ibid., 29 September 1917.

9. Ibid., 17 November 1917.

10. Spur, January-February 1918.

11. Carr, 1966, p. 10.

12. Minutes of WSF General Meeting 13 August 1917, Pankhurst Papers.

13. Workers' Dreadnought, 29 December 1917.

14. Ibid., 5 January 1918.

15. Ibid., 12 January 1918.

16. Pollitt, 1940, pp. 109-10.

17. Workers' Dreadnought, 2 March 1918.

18. Ibid., 1 June 1918.

19. Ibid., 19 January 1918.

20. Ibid., 13 December 1919.

21. Ibid.,31 August 1918.

22. Ibid., 12 July 1919.

23. Ibid., 12 April 1919.

24. Ibid., 1 May 1920.

25. Ibid., 6 August 1921.

26. Ibid., 3 December 1921.

27. See ibid., 14 June and 29 November 1919,21 February and 3 July 1920

28. Aldred, 1920, p. 18.

29. Spur, June 1920.

30. Ibid., September 1919.

31. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 December 1921.

32. Ibid., 24 December 1921.

33. Red Commune, February 1921.

34. Workers' Dreadnought, 21 February and 3 July 1920.

35. Ibid., 3 July 1920.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., 26 May 1923.

38. Ibid., 29 November 1919.

39. Ibid., 21 February and 3 July 1920.

40. Ibid., 3 July 1920.

41. Serge, 1972, p. 357.

42. Nove, 1969, p. 114.

43. Ibid., p. 55.

44. Workers' Dreadnought, 25 March 1922.

45. Ibid., 17 September 1921.

46. Ibid., 3 August 1918.

47. Ibid., 21 January 1922.

48. Ibid., 20 May 1922.

49. Ibid., 7 July "1923.

50. Ibid., 31 May 1924.

51. Ibid., 17 September 1921.

52. Ibid.,24 December 1921.

53. Ibid.,4 March 1922.

54. Ibid., 18 March 1922 (emphasis in original).

55. Carr, 1966, p. 357.

56. Workers' Dreadnought, 6 May 1922.

57. Ibid., 13 October 1923.

58. Ibid., 9 December 1922.

59. Ibid., 8 October 1921.

60. Ibid., 24 December 1921.

61. Ibid., 2 February 1924 (emphases in original).

62. Ibid., 15 July 1922.

63. Ibid., 28 January 1922.

64. Ibid., 24 December 1921.

65. Ibid., 28 January 1922.

66. Ibid., 17 September 1921.

67. Ibid., 30 July 1921.

68. Ibid., 17 September 1921.

69. Ibid., 4 November 1922.

70. Degras, 1956, p. 225.

71. Spur, May 1920.

72. Ibid., August 1920.

73. Ibid., May 1920.

74. Ibid., August 1920.

75. The Manifesto of the Fourth (Communist Workers') International (KAI) was published in the Workers' Dreadnought between 8 October and 10 December 1921 (emphases in original).

76. Commune, November 1923 (emphasis in original).

77. Ibid., September 1923.

78. Ibid., June 1924.

79. Ibid., August 1924.

80. Ibid., (emphasis in original).

81. Ibid., December 1924.

82. Ibid., April 1925.

83. Workers' Dreadnought, 29 July 1922.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., 17 June 1922.

86. See Daniels, I960, p. 159 and Schapiro, 1955. pp. 327-8.

87. Commune, November 1925.

88. Workers' Dreadnought, 28 January 1922.

89. Ibid., 8 October 1921.

90. Ibid., 31 May 1924.

3 The Labour Party

1. Aldred, 1940d, p. 39.

2. Aldred, 1955-63, vol. I no. 5, p. 113.

3. Aldred, 1955-63, vol. I no. 11, p. 260.

4. Aldred, 1923, p. 3.

5. Aldred, 1948, p. 33.

6. Quoted in Aldred. 1942a, p. 15.

7. Commune, September 1923.

8. Ibid., August 1924.

9. Klugmann, 1968, p. 20.

10. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 22 March 1917, Pankhurst Papers.

11. Minutes of WSF General Meeting 15 April 1918. Pankhurst Papers.

12. Minutes of WSF Finance Committee meeting 12 September 1918, Pankhurst Papers; Workers' Dreadnought, 2 November 1918.

13. Workers' Dreadnought. 28 July 1917.

14. Quoted in Aldred, 1942b, p. 47.

15. Workers' Dreadnought, 13 April 1918.

16. Ibid., 30 November 1918.

17. Ibid., 15 December 1917.

18. Ibid., 9 March 1918.

19. Ibid., 27 October 1917 and 2 March 1918.

20. Ibid., 6 July 1918.

21. Ibid., 13 April 1918.

22. Ibid., 27 October 1917.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid., 17 November 1917.

25. Ibid., 28 July 1917.

26. Aldred, 1923, p. 11.

27. Workers' Dreadnought, 21 February 1920.

28. Ibid., 18 January 1919.

29. See Degras, 1956, p. 3.

30. Ibid., pp. 25-6.

31. Minutes of WSF Bow branch meeting 19 May 1919, Pankhurst Papers.

32. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 22 May 1919, Pankhurst Papers.

33. Workers' Dreadnought, 14 June 1919.

34. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 12 June 1919, Pankhurst Papers.

35. Workers' Dreadnought, 21 February 1920.

36. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 7 August 1919, Pankhurst Papers.

37. Bush, 1984, p. 231.

38. Workers' Dreadnought, 14 February 1920.

39. See ibid., 20 March 1920 for the full text of both resolutions and an account of the proceedings.

40. Kendall, 1969, p. 208.

41. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 3 March 1920, Pankhurst Papers.

42. Workers' Dreadnought, 8 May 1920.

43. Lenin, 1975, p. 85.

44. Ibid., pp. 90-1.

45. Minutes of WSF Executive Committee meeting 30 March 1920, Pankhurst Papers.

46. Workers' Dreadnought, 3 July 1920.

47. Spur, July 1920.

48. Workers' Dreadnought, 14 and 21 February 1920.

49. Ibid., 21 February 1920.

50. Ibid., 24 July 1920.

51. Lenin, 1975, p. 91.

52. Hulse, 1964, p. 177.

53. Degras, 1956, p. 125.

54. Communist International, Publishing House, 1921, p. 74.

55. Lenin, 1969, pp. 267-71.

56. See Rosmer, 1971, pp. 76-7.

57. Pankhurst, 1921, pp. 45-6.

58. Workers' Dreadnought, 31 July 1920.

59. Letter dated 8 July 1920 in Lenin, 1969, p. 261.

60. MacFarlane, 1966, p. 94.

61. See Klugmann, 1968, pp. 230-4.

62. Workers' Dreadnought, 5 February 1921.

63. Ibid., 30 July 1921.

64. Ibid., 13 August 1921.

65. See 'Communist Party Affiliation to the Labour Party', 1974, pp. 16-34.

66. See MacFarlane, 1966, p. 109.

67. Commune, September 1923.

68. Workers' Dreadnought, 13 August 1921.

69. Ibid., 16 June 1923.

70. Ibid., 22 December 1923.

71. Ibid., 15 December 1923.

72. Ibid., 17 May 1924.

73. Pollitt, 1940, pp. 197 and 199.

74. See figures in Kendall. 1974. pp. 118-31.

75. Lazitch and Drachkovitch, 1972, p. 263.

76. Ibid., p. 364.

77. Workers' Dreadnought, 11 February 1922.

78. Ibid., 23 September 1922.

79. Ibid., 7 July 1923.

80. See Worker, 15 and 29 July, 19 and 26 August, and 9 and 16 September 1922.

81. Commune, November 1923.

82. Workers' Dreadnought, 30 June 1921.

83. Quoted in Branson, 1979, p. 128.

84. Workers' Dreadnought, 6 October 1923.

85. Commune, February 1924.

86. Ibid., March 1924.

87. Workers' Dreadnought, 26 January 1924.

88. Ibid., 23 February 1924.

89. Quoted in Aldred, 1942b, p. 31.

90. Workers' Dreadnought, 8 March and 12 April 1924.

91. Aldred, 1928, p. 6.

4 Trade Unions and Industrial Organisation

1. Workers' Dreadnought, 30 October 1920.

2. Ibid., 13 September 1919.

3. Ibid., 15 February 1919.

4. Circular concerning 'Activity on the Industrial Field' from E. T. Whitehead, CP(BSTI) Secretary, to Party branches, 12 July 1920, file 124, Pankhurst Papers.

5. Workers' Dreadnought, 21 April 1923.

6. Ibid.

7. Aldred, 1919b, p. 7.

8. Workers' Dreadnought, 28 July 1923.

9. Aldred, 1919b. See Author's Note to 1919 edn. and Section II (emphasis in original).

10. Workers' Dreadnought, 4 February 1922.

11. Ibid., 19 February 1921.

12. Circular from E. T. Whitehead, CP(BSTI) Secretary, to Party branches, 10 June 1920, file 125, Pankhurst Papers.

13. Workers' Dreadnought, 12 July 1919.

14. Ibid., 28 July 1923.

15. Resolution XI, Rank and File Convention Draft Agenda, file 32e, Pankhurst Papers.

16. Quoted in Hinton, 1973, p. 119.

17. Murphy, 1972.

18. See the 'Communist Party Notes' published in the Workers' Dreadnought from July 1920 onwards.

19. South Wales Miners' Federation Unofficial Reform Committee, 1973.

20. Peterson, 1976, p. 26 (emphasis added).

21. Workers' Dreadnought, 3 July 1920.

22. CP(BSTI) Suggested Circular to Branches, Number Four, no date, tile 125, Pankhurst Papers.

23. CP(BSTI) Report of Industrial Sub-committee, Draft for Final Revision, no date, file 5a, Pankhurst Papers.

24. Klugmann, 1968, pp. 20-1.

25. Aldred, 1929, p. 83 (emphases in original).

26. Word, August 1939.

27. Campbell, 1979, p. 87.

28. McShane and Smith, 1978, pp. 77-8.

29. See Kirkwood, 1935, Chapters 8-10.

30. See Aldred, 1940e, pp. 52-64.

31. Worker, 2 August 1919.

32. Spur, March 1919.

33. Statistics in this section are from the Board of Trade Statistical Department, 1926.

34. McShane and Smith, 1978, p. 136.

35. Regional and occupational figures from Astor et a!., 1922.

36. Quoted in Francis and Smith, 1980, p. 32.

37. Hinton and Hyman, 1975, p. 14.

38. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 June 1922.

39. Quail, 1978, p. 303.

40. Leaflet issued by John McGovern, Treasurer, APCF Defence and Maintenance Fund, Shettleston, 1921, bundle 2, Aldred Collection.

41. See Holton, 1976.

42. Workers' Dreadnought, 27 August 1921.

43. Ibid., 28 January 1922.

44. Ibid., 21 April 1923.

45. Ibid., 27 August 1921 (emphasis added).

46. Ibid., 11 February 1922.

47. Ibid., 23 September 1922.

48. Ibid., 5 November 1921.

49. Gorter, The Organisation of the Proletariat's Class Struggle' in Smart, 1978, p. 157.

50. KAPD, no date, p. 72.

51. Workers' Dreadnought, 5 November 1921.

52. Gorter, The Organisation of the Proletariat's Class Struggle' in Smart, 1978, p. 162.

53. Ibid., p. 159.

54. Workers' Dreadnought, 10 May 1924.

55. Ibid., 4 February 1922.

56. Ibid., 8 September 1923.

57. Ibid., 14 July 1923.

58. Ibid., 8 September 1923.

59. Ibid., 1 September 1923.

60. Ibid., 4 August 1923.

61. Ibid., 7 July 1923.

62. Ibid., 4 and 18 August, 1 September and 20 October 1923.

63. Ibid., 19 January 1924.

64. Ibid., 7 July 1923.

65. Spur, March 1920.

66. Ibid., October 1920.

67. Richards, 1983, p. 198 (emphases in original).

68. Workers' Dreadnought, 5 January 1924.

69. Aldred, 1955-63, vol. II no. 3, p. 359.

70. Aldred, 1955-63, vol. II no. 5, p. 113.

71. Spur. August 1919.

72. Ibid.

73. Commune, September 1923.

74. Aldred, 1940d, pp. 58-9.

75. Spur, March 1917.

76. Ibid., July 1917.

77. Workers' Dreadnought, 23 June and 7 July 1923.

78. Commune, November 1925. 70. Ibid., March 1924.

80. Spur, October 1918.

81. Ibid., October 1920.

5 The Late Twenties and Early Thirties

1. Workers' Dreadnought, 30 July 1921.

2. Red Commune, February 1921.

3. Workers' Dreadnought, 5 February 1921.

4. Ibid., 17 June 1922.

5. Ibid., 29 July 1922.

6. Aldred, 1948, p. 18.

7. McGovern, 1960, p. 55.

8. Authier and Barrot, 1976, p. 197 (author's translation).

9. Challinor, 1977, p. 223.

10. Pankhurst, 1926.

11. Pankhurst, 1927a and 1927b.

12. Pankhurst and Stefanovici, 1930.

13. Pankhurst, 1930.

14. Statistics in this section are from the Department of Employment and Productivity, 1971.

15. Commune, May 1925.

16. Ibid., November 1925.

17. Aldred, 1945c, p. 10.

18. See Berkman, 1925.

19. See Commune, November 1925, February and December 1926, September-October, November and December 1927, and March 1928.

20. Ibid., November 1925.

21. Ibid., January 1926.

22. Ibid., February 1926.

23. Ibid., November 1925 and May 1926.

24. Aldred, 1934a, p. 37.

25. Aldred, 194()a, pp. 46-7.

26. Commune. July 1928 (emphases in original).

27. Ibid., May 1927 (emphasis in original).

28. Ibid., September-October 1927.

29. Council. February 1933.

30. Commune, September-October 1927 (emphasis in original).

31. See ibid., March 1928 and Commune Anti-Parliamentary Communist Gazette, March 1929.

32. Council, February 1933.

33. See letter from Basil Taylor to Guy Aldred, 8 April 1934, bundle 195, Aldred Collection.

34. Council, November 1932.

35. Trotsky, 1967, pp. 234-56.

36. Commune, September 1925.

37. Aldred, 1926b, p. 32.

38. Commune, January 1925.

39. Aldred, 1926b, p. 11.

40. Commune, February 1926.

41. Ibid., June 1925.

42. Ibid., July 1928.

43. Aldred, 1926b, p. 29.

44. Aldred, 1929, pp. 14 and 16.

45. Commune, July 1928 (emphasis in original).

46. Aldred, 1926b, p. 29.

47. Commune. July 1928.

48. Aldred, 1928, p. 10.

49. Commune. October 1926.

50. Aldred, 1928, p. 10 (emphases in original).

51. Commune, October 1926.

52. Workers' Dreadnought, 27 October 1917.

53. Woman's Dreadnought, 3 March 1917.

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid.. 5 May 1917

56. Ibid., 2 June 1917.

57. Workers' Dreadnought, 13 November 1920.

58. Spur, November 1920.

59. Workers' Dreadnought, 1 March 1919.

60. Ibid., 30 August 1919.

61. Ibid., 8 March 1919.

62. Ibid., 11 August 1923.

63. Ibid., 13 January 1923.

64. Commune, September 1925.

65. Commune Special Anti-Parliamentarv Communist Gazette 12 June 1926.

66. Commune, September-October 1927.

67. Commune Anti-Parliamentary Communist Gazette, January 1929.

68. Council, October 1931.

69. Commune, January 1926.

70. Ibid., October 1925.

71. Ibid., June 1925.

72. Ibid., May 1926.

73. Commune Special Anti-Parliamentarv Communist Gazette, 16 May 1926.

74. Ibid., and Commune, July 1926.

75. Commune, March 1928.

76. Ibid., October 1923.

6 The Split in the APCF and Formation of the USM

1. Council, January 1932 (emphasis in original).

2. Commune Anti-Parliamentarv Communist Gazette, May 1929.

3. Council, December 1931.

4. Ibid., June 1932.

5. Commune Anti-Parliamentarv Communist Gazette, May 1929.

6. Council, October 1931.

7. Word, March 1944.

8. Council, February 1933.

9. See Caldwell, 1981.

10. See Glasgow Free Speech Council of Action leaflet, 'A Call for United Action1, 1931, in bundle 56, Aldred Collection.

11. Council, October 1931.

12. Ibid., May 1933.

13. Ibid., June 1932.

14. Ibid., October 1931.

15. Ibid., December 1931.

16. Ibid., May 1932 (emphasis in original).

17. Ibid., June 1932.

18. Aldred, 1935, p. 97.

19. Aldred, 1942a, pp. 75-6.

20. Word, March 1944.

21. Guy Aldred to Sandy Whyte, 12 April 1934, bundle 195, Aldred Collection.

22. The Minute Book of the Workers' Open Forum is in bundle 127, Aldred Collection.

23. New Spur, March 1934.

24. Ibid., February and March 1934.

25. Aldred, 1934f, pp. 3 and 5-6.

26. Ibid., p. 3.

27. Socialist May Special, May 1934 (emphasis in original).

28. Aldred, 1934d, p. 6.

29. Socialist May Special, May 1934 (emphasis in original).

30. Ibid.

31. Aldred, 1934f, p. 5.

32. Aldred, 1934d, p. 16.

33. Aldred, 1934e, p. 8.

34. Socialist May Special, May 1934.

35. See correspondence between Guy Aldred, Tom Taylor (Organising

Secretary, ILP Glasgow Federation) and Fenner Brockway (ILP National Administrative Council), May-June 1934, bundle 7, Aldred Collection.

36. See minutes of Workers' Open Forum/United Socialist Movement meetings 28 June and 5 and 12 July 1934, bundle 127, Aldred Collection.

37. See United Socialist, October 1934.

38. Letter to the Evening Times (Glasgow), 23 July 1931 in Aldred, 194()f, p. 29.

39. See Caldwell, 1978, p. 235.

40. Minutes of USM meeting 16 October 1934, bundle 128, Aldred Collection.

41. Aldred, 1934b.

42. Aldred, 1934c.

43. Text of proposed amendment in bundle 26, Aldred Collection.

44. See correspondence between Frank Leech and Guy Aldred, March 1934, in bundle 230, Aldred Collection.

45. Aldred's foreword to Trotsky, 1934, pp. 2-3.

46. United Socialist, October 1934.

47. Aldred, 1935, p. 40.

48. Ibid., p. 55.

49. Ibid., pp. 55 and 39.

50. Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, 1935, p. 6.

51. Ibid., pp. 18-19.

52. Ibid., p. 10.

53. Ibid., pp. 19 and 28.

54. Ibid., p. 21.

55. Attack, May 1936.

56. Aldred, 1935, p. 24.

57. Luxemburg, 1935, pp. 13-14.

58. Ibid., p. 20.

59. Ibid., p. 23.

60. Ibid., pp. 23-4.

61. Ibid., p. 26.

62. APCF foreword to ibid., p. 3.

63. Aldred, 1935, p. 102.

64. International Council Correspondence, June 1935.

65. Aldred, 1935, p. 61.

66. Minutes of USM meeting 7 May 1935, bundle 128, Aldred Collection.

67. See letter from Guy Aldred to Vera Buch Weisbord, 17 June 1935, bundle 13, Aldred Collection; Weisbord, 1977, p.312.

68. Minutes of USM meeting 7 May 1935, bundle 128, Aldred Collection.

69. Letter reprinted in News From Spain, 1 May 1937.

70. Guy Aldred to the Evening Citizen (Glasgow), 8 September 1936 in Aldred, 1940f, p. 44.

71. Word, May 1938.

72. Socialist Anti-Terror Committee, 1938, pp. 1-5.

73. See minutes of USM meeting 21 March 1938, bundle 129, Aldred Collection.

74. Letter from B. Meehan to USM Chairman, 25 June 1935, bundle 101, Aldred Collection.

75. Minutes of USM meeting 2 July 1935, bundle 128, Aldred Collection.

76. See minutes of USM meetings 16 October 1935 and 28 January and 4 February 1936, bundle 128, Aldred Collection.

77. Bricianer, 1978, p. 243.

78. Aldred, 1935, Chapter 11.

79. Attack, May 1936.

80. Ibid.

81. Aldred to the Evening Times (Glasgow), 24 August 1935 in Aldred, 194()f, p. 37.

82. Mattick, 1970, p. viii.

83. Marx and Engels, 1968, pp. 181-2.

84. Living Marxism, Spring 1940.

85. Ibid.

86. Ibid.

87. International Communist Current, no date, p. 12.

88. Appel, 1985. p. 28.

89. 'APCF Aims' published in Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, 1935, p. 30 and Luxemburg. 1935, pp. 27-8.

90. Advance, May 1936.

91. Ibid.

92. Ibid.

93. Aldred, 1940c, p. 7.

7 The Civil War in Spain

1. Sylvia Pankhurst, 'The Red Twilight' (unpublished typescript), file 26c 73-2, Pankhurst Papers.

2. Advance, May 1936.

3. Regeneration, 2 August 1936.

4. Caldwell, 1976, p. 213.

5. Quoted in Jones, 1982, p. 206.

6. Advance, September 1936.

7. Workers' Free Press, September 1937.

8. Solidarity, June-July 1939.

9. Ibid., November 1940-January 1941.

10. Advance, May 1936 (emphases in original).

11. Resolution published in Regeneration, 16 August 1936.

12. Regeneration, 5 August 1936.

13. Ibid., 8 August 1936.

14. Ibid., 18 August 1936.

15. Ibid., 26 August 1936.

16. Advance, September 1936.

17. Ibid., August-September 1936.

18. Regeneration, 8 August 1936.

19. Fighting Call, November 1936.

20. Ibid., 1 February 1937.

21. 'If War Comes . . . What Then?', (no date), bundle 56, Aldred Collection.

22. Advance, May 1936.

23. Workers' Free Press, October 1937.

24. Montseny, 1937, pp. 5 and 13 (emphasis in original).

25. See Advance, September 1936 and Fighting Call, October and November 1936.

26. Regeneration, 21 February 1937.

27. Guy Aldred to Jane Patrick, 30 November 1936, bundle 141, Aldred Collection.

28. See unpublished manuscript by Guy Aldred attacking Emma Goldman in bundle 105, Aldred Collection.

29. Guy Aldred to Andre Prudhommeaux, 15 October 1936, bundle 110, Aldred Collection.

30. See Guy Aldred to Jane Patrick, 30 November 1936, bundle 141, Aldred Collection.

31. Regeneration, 9 September 1936.

32. Ibid.. 23 September 1936.

33. See minutes of USM meeting 20 October 1936, bundle 129, Aldred Collection.

34. See minutes of USM meeting 12 November 1936, bundle 129, Aldred Collection.

35. Text of radio broadcast (no date) published in News From Spain, 1 May 1937.

36. Regeneration, 21 February 1937.

37. Text of radio broadcast (7 March 1937) published in News From Spain, 1 May 1937.

38. Regeneration, 21 February 1937.

39. Ibid., 28 February 1937.

40. News From Spain, 1 May 1937.

41. Ibid.

42. Anti-Parliamentary Volunteers, 1937.

43. Barcelona Bulletin, 15 May 1937.

44. Advance, 19 July 1937; 2nd edn, 7 August 1937.

45. See minutes of USM meetings 10 and 31 August 1937, bundle 129, Aldred Collection, and Workers' Free Press, September 1937.

46. See International Council Correspondence, August 1937 and Workers' Free Press, September 1937 (emphasis in original).

47. Workers' Free Press, October 1937.

48. Solidarity, August 1938.

49. Ibid., June-July 1939.

8 The Second World War

1. Solidarity, May 1939.

2. Ibid., March-April 1939.

3. Word, May 1939.

4. Ibid., March 1940.

5. War Commentcirv. November 1939 (emphases in original).

6. Ibid.. mid-ApriM943.

7. Solidarity, mid-October 1939.

8. Ibid., October-November 1942.

9. Word, August 1939.

10. Maximov, 1939, p. 21.

11. Solidarity, June-July 1939.

12. Ibid., March-April'l939.

13. Aldred, 1945c, p. 5.

14. Ibid., p. 4.

15. Word, January 1944.

16. Ibid., May 1939.

17. Solidarity, September 1944.

18. Ibid., September-October 1940. See also 'Anti-Parliamentarism and Council Communism' in International Council Correspondence, October 1935.

19. Solidarity, June-July 1939.

20. Ibid.. September-October 1940.

21. Ibid.. November 1940-January 1941.

22. Ibid., May 1944.

23. Ibid., August-September 1942.

24. Ibid., May 1944.

25. Quoted in Calder, 1971, p. 124.

26. Aldred and Wynn. 1943, p. 2.

27. Ibid., p. 10.

28. Ibid., p. 4.

29. Ibid., p. 2.

30. See War Commentary, August 1944.

31. Croucher, 1982, p. 241.

32. Solidarity, May 1944.

33. Ibid., June-July 1942.

34. Croucher, 1982, p. 373.

35. War Commentary, April 1943.

36. Ibid., mid-May 1944.

37. Solidarity, June-July 1943.

38. Evening Times (Glasgow), 12 November 1941.

39. Ibid., 11 November 1941.

40. War Commentary, December 1941 (emphasis in original).

41. Word, November 1943.

42. War Commentary, October 1943 Supplement.

43. Evening Times (Glasgow), 1 October 1943. Account of strike compiled from Evening Times (Glasgow), 23 September-5 October 1943; War Commentary, October 1943 Supplement; and Word, November 1943.

44. Account of strike compiled from Evening Times (Glasgow), 13 December 1943-11 January 1944; Solidarity, December 1943-January 1944; and War Commentary, January, mid-January and February 1944.

45. Evening Times (Glasgow), 28 December 1943.

46. War Commentary, January 1944.

47. Equity, 1945, pp. 5 and 16.

48. Ibid., p. 3.

49. War Commentary, 14 July 1945.

50. Equity, 1945, p."21.

51. Ibid.

52. War Commentary, 24 February 1945.

53. Ibid., 14 July 1945.

54. Equity, 1945, pp. 20-1.

55. War Commentary, 1 April 1945.

56. Solidarity, September-October 1940.

57. Ibid.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., October-November 1942 (emphases in original).

60. Ibid., November 194(KJanuary 1941.

61. Ibid., February-April 1941.

62. Ibid., August-September 1941.

63. Ibid., February-April 1942.

64. Ibid., November 1940-January 1941.

65. Ibid., October-November 1942.

66. Ibid., September-October 1940.

67. Ibid., November 1940-January 1941.

68. Ibid., February-April 1941.

69. Aidred, 1945c, p. 16.

70. War Commentary, mid-April 1944.

71. Minutes of USM meeting 11 May 1943, bundle 97, Aidred Collection.

72. War Commentary, mid-April 1943.

73. Ibid., November and December 1943, mid-February and mid-April 1944.

74. Lenin, 1970, pp. 64-6.

75. Solidarity, August-September 1942.

76. Ibid., February-May 1943.

77. Anarchist, no. 2, no date [August 1940] and no. 3, no date [September 1940]; Solidaritv, September-October 1940; War Commentary, August and October 1940; Word, September 1940.

78. War Commentary, mid-April 1944.

79. War Commentary, December 1941; Word, December 1941.

80. War Commentary, mid-October 1942, mid-January, mid-April, July and mid-October 1944; Word, October 1942 and November 1944.

81. Word, February 1941, December 1942 and April 1945.

82. Ibid., August and December 1941, December 1942 and January 1943.

83. Word, July 1942; Solidarity, August-September 1942.

84. Word, July 1940.

85. Aidred, 1942b, p. 3.

86. Word, August 1939.

87. Aidred, 1942a, p. 65.

88. Word, June 1943.

89. Ibid., August 1943.

90. Ibid., June 1940 and January 1941.

91. War Commentary, 13 January 1945.

92. Word, May 1940.

93. Caldwell. 1984, pp. 9-10.

94. Aldred, 1942a, p. 77.

95. Word, August 1941.

96. Ibid., June 1940.

97. Ibid., November 1944.

98. Ibid., March 1945.

99. Ibid., May 1942.

100. Ibid., July 1942.

101. Solidarity, June-July 1939.

102. Ibid., February-April 1941.

103. Ibid., September-October 1940 (emphasis in original).

104. Ibid., June-July 1939.

105. Ibid., June-July 1943.

106. Word, March 1941.

107. See War Commentary, February and April 1940.

108. Solidarity, June-July 1943.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., June-July 1939.

111. Minutes of USM Study Circle meeting 8 May 1941, bundle 130, Aldred Collection.

112. War Commentary, mid-April 1943. 113 Solidarity, June-J uly 1943.

114. War Commentary, mid-September 1943.

115. Ibid., 30 December 1944.

116. Ibid., 27 January 1945.

117. Aldred, 1945a and 1945b.

118. Ibid., (emphasis in original).

119. Word, December 1945.

120. Aldred, 1945a.

121. Ibid., (emphasis in original).

122. War Commentary, 14 July 1945.

9 A Balance Sheet

1. See Wildcat, 1986.

2. Woodcock, 1970, p. 91.

3. See Freedom Press Group, 1953.

4. Caldwell, 1976, p. 265.

5. See Jones, 1982, pp. 205-7.

6. Caldwell, 1976, p. 215.